The genetic legacy of Britain

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In 2015, Oxford University researchers investigated and uncovered distinct geographical groupings of genetically similar individuals across the UK.  

The study, published in the journal Nature, found that:

  • There was no single Celtic genetic group. In fact the Celtic parts of the UK (Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and Cornwall) are distinct from each other genetically. For example, the Cornish are much more similar genetically to other English groups than they are to the Welsh or the Scots. 

  • There are separate genetic groupings in Cornwall and Devon, with the division almost exactly along the modern county boundary.

  • The majority of people in eastern, central and southern England are a single, homogeneous genetic group with a significant DNA contribution from Anglo-Saxon settlers (10-40% of total ancestry). This finding settles an historical controversy in showing that the Anglo-Saxons intermarried with, rather than replaced, existing populations in these areas.

  • The population of Orkney is the most genetically distinct British population group, with 25% of DNA of Orcadians coming from Norwegian ancestors.

  • The Welsh are more like the earliest post-Ice Age settlers of Britain than are other people in the UK.

The genetic legacy of Scotland


Following on from this earlier study, Edinburgh University researchers have now undertaken an in depth genetic study of the Scots people. Their study examined the genetic make-up of people whose ancestors had lived in specific geographic locations in Scotland for at least four generations.

The results appeared in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America in September 2019.

This Scottish genetic study reveals that:

  • Scotland’s genetic landscape is remarkably similar to Dark Age populations, reflecting the country’s ancient kingdoms. For example, the genetic cluster in the southwest of Scotland mirrors the sixth-ninth century Dark Age kingdoms of Strathclyde and Dal Riata (modern Argyle)
  • There are six clusters of genetically-similar people in the Borders, the south west, the north east of Scotland, in the Hebrides, and Orkney and in Shetland.
  • These clusters are distinct from each other and this differentiation is due to the majority of people in each location marrying locally and preserving their genetic identity.


In southern Scotland, the Borders region forms the boundary between Scotland and England. People from the Borders have a distinct genetic signature, with a majority of Scottish people in the Borders area sharing genes with people of English ancestry. This distinguishes the Border folk in the lowlands from Scots from other geographic locations. This Borders genetic cluster mirrors the ancient Brythonic kingdoms of the Gododdin and Rheged (modern Cumbria)

The Highlands in the north of Scotland are sparsely populated and an isolated mountainous region. This isolation is shown in the genetic features of Scots living in this region, whose genes differ from the genes of Scots elsewhere in Scotland. The Edinburgh University researchers have concluded that these differences in the Highland folk are the genetic legacy of their ancient Pictish ancestors, whose kingdoms were historically located in Scotland’s Highlands.

The study also confirms that the people of the Hebrides are genetically distinct from the rest of mainland Scotland, forming a discrete genetic “island”. This is attributable to Irish genetic admixture and generations of relative isolation for the small, ancestral island population.

Orkney and Shetland also form their own isolated “islands” with distinctive genetic features. These differences are attributable to both Norwegian ancestry and the isolation of these northern isles. The study’s clustering analysis also shows a significant degree of differentiation within each island group, with genetic differences evident in individual isles.

The genetic features in the study’s clusters in the south east and north-west of Scotland indicate an affinity with people of Welsh ancestry, reflecting a common Celtic ancestry across Scotland and Ireland.

The eastern Scottish clusters in Aberdeenshire and Tayside-Fife indicate English-like ancestry. The Isle of Man similarly shows relatively high (42%) English ancestry.

This in depth study of the genetic inheritance of the Scots confirms Scotland’s genetic continuity across the centuries.

This genetic legacy is the real treasure of Scotland.

Bagpipes of the British Isles

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Bagpipes are woodwind instruments. Their most obvious feature is that, unlike oboes or clarinets, their air supply is not blown directly through a reed. Instead, the air is held in a bag, which is gently squeezed, thus supplying air to a reed which is inserted in a chanter, on which the melody is played. Most forms of bagpipe also have one or more drones, also containing reeds vibrated by air from the bag. These drones produce a constant sound to accompany the melody of the chanter, rather like the pipes of an organ.

Most people in the English-speaking world associate bagpipes with the Scottish Highland military pipe bands that became familiar throughout the British Empire in the 19th century. In fact, the earliest evidence of this instrument comes from the part of what is now Turkey that was occupied by the ancient Hittites. These people spoke the oldest-known form of the Indo-European language group. A carving on a Hittite slab dated to around 1,000 BCE is accepted by musicologists as representing an early bagpipe. 

Starting in Anatolia, or perhaps some other centre of our ancestral culture, bagpipes spread throughout the Indo-European diaspora. There are local versions of bagpipes in all the parts of the world in which our ancestors settled – from Ireland to Norway, from Turkey to India, from northern Africa to central Asia. The ancient Greek version of the instrument was called the askaulos, while the historian Suetonius says that the Roman Emperor Nero played the tibia utricularis, which seems to refer to a pipe that could be both blown into directly and also supplied with air by a bag held under the arm.

Naturally, then, the bagpipes would probably have been brought to the British Isles by its earliest Indo-European settlers. Unfortunately, we don’t have much evidence of this. Writing was not common until the Roman invasions, and old instruments made of wood and leather tend not to survive. However, they are explicitly mentioned in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (written around 1387-1400):

A baggepype wel coude he blowe and sowne, 

And therwithal he broghte us out of towne.


The Scottish Highland pipes are first recorded as having been used at the battle of Pinkie in 1547. Bagpipes are first attested in Ireland in an illustration from 1581 by John Derricke, reproduced below: 

bagpipes 1.png

William Shakespeare, in The Merchant of Venice and elsewhere, refers to bagpipes. For instance:


Some men there are love not a gaping pig;

Some that are mad if they behold a cat;

And others, when the bagpipe sings i’ th’ nose,

Cannot contain their urine; for affection,

Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood

Of what it likes or loathes.


Furthermore, there are many carvings of bagpipers in British medieval churches.


As in many other parts of the world, British Isles bagpipes vary greatly from region to region. Since the form of the instrument that is best known to the general public is the type used by regimental bands, we will start with the Great Highland Pipes of Scotland (in Gaelic, piob mor), seen below:


At the far right of this image is the chanter, on which the melody is played. It produces only nine notes, ranging from G in the treble clef up to A above G. The spacing between the notes is not that of the classical western scale, which seems to irritate some listeners. The hole down the centre of the chanter, or bore, is conical rather than parallel. This type of bore gives a stronger, harsher sound, while parallel bores are more mellow and more suited for indoor playing. The reed that produces the actual sound is made of two pieces of cane pressed almost together. When air is forced through the reed the canes vibrate. The top end of the Highland chanter is open, which means that any two sequential notes are slurred. The only way to separate them is to interpolate very short “grace notes”.


To the left of the chanter is a blowpipe. At its base there is a non-returning valve made of leather, often called a “clack valve”.


Then there are the three drones, tuned to the low A on the chanter. The two short drones, known as “tenor” drones, are an octave below low A on the chanter. The long or “bass” drone is a further octave deeper. 


Although we are most familiar with Highland pipes playing military tunes suitable for marching, like “Scotland the Brave”, there is also a native Scottish classical tradition known variously as piobaireachd or Ceol Mor. This style of music is very formal, very complicated in structure, and requires far more skill than the average piper can aspire to. It also requires the listener to be familiar with the tradition – rather like a Bach fugue or an Indian raga. To many people unfamiliar with the tradition it sounds convincing but unappealing.


We have used the Great Highland Pipe as an introduction to the world of British Bagpipes. All that remains is to list some of the other pipes from different regions in the British Isles. We will do this in alphabetical order.



  • England



The Northumbrian Small Pipes are probably the most sophisticated bagpipes in the world. Have a look at Kathryn Tickell playing them in the image below:


As you can see, she is not blowing into them. Instead, air is supplied to the bag by a bellows strapped under her right arm. The chanter is parallel-bored, which makes the instrument sweet and mellow. It is also end-stopped, so the notes can be separated in “staccato” style. It also contains several brass keys, which means it can have a fully chromatic range over two octaves. There are four drones, which have tuning beads that allow them to be tuned to different keys. Unlike the Great Highland Pipes, any traditional Western music can be played on this instrument. 


The Northumbrian War Pipes are attested to in the historical record, but are now extinct. 


The Northumbrian Half-Longs are in almost all respects the same as those which Scottish enthusiasts call the Scottish Lowland pipes. They differ in the tuning of their drones. The Lowland pipes have a Bass A and two Tenor As, while the Half-Longs usually have either Bass A, Baritone E and Tenor A; or else Bass A, Tenor A and Treble A. The bores of the drones and chanter are narrower than the Highland pipes, which makes them more compatible with other instruments.


Cornish bagpipes are well-attested in medieval art. Sometimes they appear to have had double chanters. They became extinct in practice, but modern attempts have been made to revive them, based on traditional images such as this image of a Cornish piper from Davidstow Church:



  • Ireland



There are two types of bagpipe associated with Ireland: 


The Uillean pipes are bellows-blown. They can achieve two octaves by a process called “over-blowing” (similar to a penny whistle), and they can be played staccato by stopping the open end of the chanter against the player’s thigh. Most historians accept that these pipes originated from the Northumbrian small-pipes and Scottish Lowland pipes, and spread to Ireland with the Protestant Anglo-Irish community that could afford such expensive and high-maintenance instruments.


The image above shows that the Uillean pipes are very similar to the Northumbrian pipes. The chanter lacks keys, but there are also regulators that allow the piper to play simple chords. 


The Irish war-pipes. At the time of the John Derricke illustration (above), both the Irish war-pipes and (probably) their Scottish equivalents had only two drones. It is likely that they were essentially the same instrument. Sadly, no early instruments seem to have survived, so we may never know. A 19th-century reconstructed form of the Irish war-pipe, with two drones, was used in some Irish regiments until the 1960s. It has now been replaced by the Great Highland Pipe. 



  • Scotland



In addition to the two pipes mentioned above, mention should be given to the Scottish Pastoral Pipe, which was designed in the early 1700s and is now effectively extinct. It looked like this:



  • Wales



Welsh bagpipes are attested to as early as 1376, by the poet Iolo Goch. The Welsh pipe later became almost extinct. It may have still been made by a few local craftsmen in recent centuries, but it was scarcely heard until the revival of interest in Celtic culture in the 1970s. Here is a modern Welsh instrument pitched in G Major:



The bagpipes are still immensely popular in all those parts of the world settled by Indo-Europeans. In the British Isles, and the general Anglosphere, the Great Highland Pipes are best known. But reconstructions of medieval instruments such as the Welsh pipes are becoming more popular, and so are the more modern and more sophisticated versions of this instrument, such as the Northumbrian and Uillean pipes.




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Pension Image
In March 2019, Endeavour advised British expats living in Australia and eligible Australians who have worked for at least three years in the UK and paid national insurance contributions that the British Government’s pension discount scheme was closing on 6th April 2019.

This scheme – known as the Class 2 national insurance contribution scheme – allows people who have already qualified for a British pension to buy extra pension entitlements at a much lower rate than the contribution amounts that millions of workers in Britain and Northern Ireland must pay.

Class 2 contributions also provide a way for people who have worked in Britain in the past to qualify for the pension, even if they have not made the minimum 10 years of national insurance contributions necessary to get the basic British Pension.

This could deliver those eligible hundreds of £pounds of extra British Pension payments on retirement.

A British resident would have to pay £762 ($1386) in the 2018-19 financial year to voluntarily boost their British Pension annual entitlement by £246 ($448). This contribution arrangement would pay for itself within 4 years. These costlier contributions are known as Class 3 contributions.

Expats and Aussies who have worked for at least three years in Britain and made their compulsory national insurance contributions only need to voluntarily contribute £153 ($278) this financial year under the Class 2 scheme to enjoy the extra £246 ($448) pension payment each year on reaching pension age – for the rest of their lives. This super-discount contribution scheme pays for itself in the first year of pension payments! It then becomes a gift that goes on giving for a lifetime.

Projecting this benefit over a 15 year timeframe would see eligible expats and eligible Aussies who make this voluntary contribution and then collect the British Pension receive more than $6,600 extra in Australian dollars (based on current exchange rates) in their British pension in return for a one-off payment of $278 this financial year.

The news gets better!

The British national insurance system allows for payment of up to six years of retrospective contributions, meaning anyone who is eligible can also make voluntary retrospective contributions back to the 2012-13 tax year. These retrospective contributions can be made under the discount Class 2 contribution scheme provided you are eligible. That means eventually even more money in your British pension on retirement.

It’s important to note, though, that if you have already reached British Pension age, you are no longer eligible to make Class 2 pension contributions.

If you’re in this situation, you could still make the more expensive Class 3 contributions retrospectively up to a maximum of six prior years to boost your pension entitlement.

That’s the good news.

Now the bad news.

A negative feature of the British pension scheme is the British Government’s continuing refusal to index the pensions of expatriates and other pension recipients in Australia.

This is in contrast to British pension recipients in Britain as well as in a number of other countries including the United States and Israel, who receive indexed British pensions.

If, like us, you consider this refusal to index British pensions for those pensioners living in Australia to be inequitable, we encourage you to contact the British Pensions in Australia body – see our BPIA website link or visit

The dedicated people who run this site provide excellent advice about British pensions – see their Frequently Asked Questions section for some clear information about British pensions.

BPIA have been fighting relentlessly to secure indexation of British pensions for recipients of British pensions in Australia. We encourage you to support their cause.